Hand woven saddle bags
An Oriental rug is a luxurious object of art for the floor. They
are available in many wonderful colors, meaningful designs, and
soft textures of silk and wool. They are often used in churches
on the steps of the altar. Muslims use prayer rugs for worship.
Nomads decorated their tents with rugs, and used saddlebags (image
at left) to carry their belongings. Oriental rugs are hand knotted
of wool, silk, or cotton on a loom with a warp, and have weft-finished
sides with fringed ends.
Two types of looms are used: 1) the flat loom is used by Nomads
and can be transported by camel or donkey, their size is generally
small; 2) the upright and adjustable loom is used in work shops
where longer lengths can be woven.
Materials used are cotton, wool, and silk, which are sheared
and spun for their intended use, then washed and dyed. Villagers
tend to produce more consistent color than Nomads. The variation
in color is called abrash. It is possible for a weaver to tie
as many as 10,000 knots per day.
The two types of knots are: 1) Turkish or Ghiordes and 2) Persian
or Senneh. A knot is placed on the warp across the loom in rows,
which form the design, color, and nap. At that point the weft
is woven in over and under the warp to secure the foundation.
Major weaving groups include IRAN, most important and largest,
TURKOMAN, mostly reds, includes Afghanistan, CAUCASIAN Russian,
between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, TURKISH, Geometric
and floral, and INDIA Including China and Pakistan.
The Ardabil carpet woven by Maksuod of Kashan is approximately
34' x 17' and has approximately 33,000,000 hand tied knots. It
was made in 1530 in Persia and after being restored is now on
display at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. "Must
Be Seen" to be fully appreciated.